When children and young peoples development is monitored and assessed, it enables practitioners and professionals to notice when children and young people are not progressing as expected. Therefore, if necessary checks can be made to see why children are not developing as expected may be due to impairment.
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When practitioners and professionals intervene in early years of the children, they will able to get appropriate support they need and their development and their welfare is promoted. Children and young people’s overall outcomes will be promoted significantly when professionals carry out early intervention.
There are several methods of monitoring children’s development explained below:-
Practitioners are required to carry out on going assessments through observations on a diary basis as its integral part of development and learning. Any learning and development needs of children and young people must be addressed by the practitioners with the parent/ carer and relevant professionals. Parents/ carers should be updated regularly with their children’s progress and development.
Progress check at two:
Practitioners should carry out a progress check when the child is aged between two
and three. It should be carried out in the setting where the children spend more time and discuss how the summary of development can be used to support their learning at home.
It is a written summary of the child’s development in the prime areas. The practitioner must discuss with the parents and / carers how the summary of development can be used to support learning at home. It must reflect on going, regular observation of children’s development.
The progress check at two enables practitioners and any other professionals to identify development needs early on in the child’s life in order he/she gets the additional support needed.
Assessment at the end of the EYFS – the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP). EYFSP must be completed for each child in the final term when he/she turns five years old and should be before the 30th of June in that term. School must share the results of the profile with the parents / carers and relevant professionals. The profile provides details of the child’s knowledge, understanding and abilities, their progress against expected levels and how ready they are for year 1.
In settings, practitioners watch children play and watch how they are behaving. Some observations do not need the practitioner to interact with the children while in others it may be more appropriate for the practitioner to be involved in order to support learning and development. Observations play a very important part in assessing the children’s development.
When practitioners carry out observations, they are able to get information about the child’s development, interests and their interactions with friends and adults as well their level of concentrations.
Different professionals use various standardized measurements to monitor and assess the children’s development.
Growth / healthy assessments.
These are used to measure and assess the children’s height, weight and head circumference.
These assessments are used to monitor and assess the children’s levels of response.
These assessments are used to monitor and assess the children’s reasoning and they are carried out by educational psychologists.
Cognitive aptitude assessments.
These assessments are used to monitor and assess the children’s intelligence and they are widely carried out in schools.
All the above tests help professionals to see how a child is performing compared to the large group/ population of other children in the same age group.
Information from parents/ carers, colleagues and others.
Practitioners should collect as much information as possible from parents/ carers when monitoring and assessing children’s development as the parents/ carers spend more time and are more attune with their children. They see the child in a variety of different situations hence have a lot to contribute and they are aware of their learning and behaviour outside the setting. They always have a different perspective. It is very important to also involve the child whenever possible.
“Key workers generally take lead role in monitoring and assessing their key children but colleagues who also work with the child should also be consulted as they may have different perceptions.” (Walker 2011. p.117).
CYP 3.1: 3.2 EXPLAIN THE REASONS WHY CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE’S DEVELOPMENT MAY NOT FOLLOW THE EXPECTED PATTERN.
Children encounter issues in their lives that have a positive or negative influence on their lives and hinder them from following the expected pattern of development. As practitioners, we have the duty of care towards the children and young people to ensure that we improve their life chance by following the Every Child Matter outcomes, which are be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being.
The children’s/ young people’s genetics affects their development, which includes their physical growth and physical strength. “Occasionally a reason for a child not attaining the usual pattern of development cannot be identified, even after professionals have investigated the influences on development thoroughly. One possibility is that it’s in the child’s genetic makeup to have a slow start to their learning” (Walker 2011 p.119).
The social, economic and cultural factors.
Families may decide to live in a different way example travelling families. The children/ young people’s education may be affected if their families travel a lot and they may not settle in. This may stop children from following their expected development pattern.
Some families bring up their children differently and some bring up boys differently from girls and this can affect the children’s development.
Families live in poverty mostly due to unemployment and low income. Due to lack of money, families may fail to provide enough food to eat, clothes to wears, educational resources outside school and heat for winter for their children, which may affect their health and that of the parent. This might hinder the children/ young people to reach their full potential
Housing and Community
Children and young people’s development is greatly affected negatively if they live in poor housing conditions like living in a damp condition may cause health problems to the children that may affect their learning.
Children and young people living in neighbourhood with anti-social behaviour may be affected negatively as they may be isolated or they may decide to join in and their development will be affected.
Poor parental supervision/ neglect
Children need guidance to learn how to behave well. If they do not get the guidance from their parent, they will misbehave at school because they do not understand the boundaries. Lack of boundaries may result in the children and young people being involved in crime and anti-social behaviour.
If the setting does not reach the statutory requirement, this will affect the children and young people’s development and they will not achieve their full potential therefore they might be un able to follow the expected development pattern.
Health status and Disability
Children and young people with existing health condition or with disability may find it hard to fit in and if they are discriminated against, this will have a negative impact on their lives.
Children and young people with learning difficulties and those with specific learning needs may not follow the expected development pattern as they may need a range of additional support with their learning and development, for example with writing , reading or maths. Children with Dyslexia they need support with their learning and development.
Bereavement and loss
Losing a loved one or pet can have a great impact on emotional and physical health. Children/ young people may find it hard to cope with the grief and this may affect their well-being.
Religious beliefs and customs
Children may be excluded from setting to attend specific settings due to their religious beliefs and customs therefore the children may miss out on some activities and this might have a negative impact on their live.
Children might feel isolated and discriminated against due to their ethnic belief and this will have a negative impact on their lives.
Children and young people who have trouble with their communication, their learning and development will be impacted on and this leads to the children not following their expected development pattern. Communication development is linked closely to social, emotional and behaviour and intellectual/cognitive development.
3.3 EXPLANATION OF HOW DISABILITY MAY AFFECT DEVELOPMENT
Practitioner should have a good knowledge of particular impairments and understand that the same impairment can affect each child differently. Therefore, practitioners must understand the children they are working with, how the impairment is affecting them in order to meet their needs appropriately. Practitioners should look for ways of increasing learning and development opportunities for children with disabilities.
Social model of disability
When society is not set up to meet the needs of people experiencing impairment, this implies that impairments give rise to disability. “The society disables them, rather than enabling them” (Walker 2011 p.285).
National Occupational standards states that “the social model considers that it is society that needs to change and that disabled people have rights and choices.”
Children with learning difficulties and impairment that affect their social and emotional development may find it had to interact with others and they will be unable to make friends and positive relationships.
Society should change to give the children with disability an opportunity to participate in society and ensure that it meets the children and young people’s needs so as to achieve positive outcome.
Medical model of disability
In this model of disability people without a disability, they see the impairment of disabled people as a problem that needs solved or cured whereas some impairments have no cure. Medical model limits the opportunities for children and young people and this impact negatively on their learning and development.
The children with long term medical conditions or physical disabilities may not achieve their full potential as they may miss educational opportunities due to their health, having to stay in hospitals and attending medical appointments.
When people/ societies have low expectations for children and young people with disability, they will be denied the opportunities they need to achieve their full potential. If children and young people with disability have low expectation of themselves they may not want to get involved and they will feel isolated and unable to fit in.
Children with disabilities may develop low self-confidence and self-esteem due to the stereotyping, discrimination and if the family members see them as a burden or have negative attitudes due to their lack of ability to cope with their disability.
Children and young people may miss out on the chance to learn, play and work due to discrimination because of their disability as well as their background, hence unable to achieve a positive outcome. People from different cultures should be more understanding, accepting and encouraging to children and young people with disabilities.
Due to lack of funds and resources, can hinder the children with disability having opportunities to experiences activities and achieve their full potential as meeting the needs of a child with disability can be very expensive and funded services vary from one local area to another.
The benefits of positive attitudes to disability.
Positive attitudes to disability helps the children with disability develop a positive attitude towards themselves and they will have high expectations for their life.
The children and young people will have increased self-esteem and self-confidence, gain their independence and have a purpose in life.
They will be able to achieve a positive outcome with their learning and development.
“Positivity can also help children and young people to develop resilience to counteract some of the negative attitudes that they will no doubt experience from others during their lives – stereotyping and discrimination are prime examples.” (Walker 2011 p.287).
3.4 AN EXPLANATION OF HOW DIFFERENT TYPES OF INTERVENATIONS CAN PROMOTE POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE WHERE DEVELOPMENT IS NOT FOLLOWING THE EXPECTED PATTERN.
A number of professional agencies may become involved when children are identified as not following the expected developmental pattern.
The professionals will all work together to support children and their families to ensure that children and younger people achieve their full potential.
Children and young people’s outcomes can be improved when multi-agency approach is involved and this includes the children and young people’s development.
Below are the professionals involved in the interventions with children.
Main area of responsibility
Types of intervention
Behavioural Support Service (BEST)
They work in partnership with provisions within the framework to include everyone.
They promote good behaviour and provide support to children and young people, parents and settings.
Behaviour impact the children’s and young people achievements. When children have positive behaviour they achieve at school.
Recognising and managing their emotions and learn about relations.
Improved educational outcome.
Training of staff
Advice on how to develop and review behaviour policies.
Speech and language therapists.
They are employed by the local Primary Health Trust.
They assess and treat speech, language and communication problem to allow children to communicate to the best of their ability.
Children being able to communicate with others. Meeting their individual development needs.
Improved language skills.
Settling better in settings and will to learn.
Improved education outcome.
They are referred from the GP or concern from the setting.
Educating parents and staff.
Promoting speech and language development through songs and rhymes involving children and parents.
They help children who have problems as a result of injuries to rehabilitate and increase their movement and coordination, illness or for medical reasons.
When the children and young people are rehabilitated.
Range of motion exercise
Soft tissue movement.
They help and support children with social, emotional problem or learning difficulties. They offer advice and giving counseling to children and parents.
Being able to enhance the child’s learning and enabling practitioners to be more aware of the social factors affecting children’s learning.
Improved education outcome.
They are health professionals who help, support and educate parents on the way of preventing diseases through immunizations, good child nutrition, minor illness and behavior issues. They advice parents on health and child development. They do home visits and sometimes, they can be found in the local medical centre at least once a week.
They support parents to ensure that children are protected from illness and they achieve their developmental milestones.
Improve education and life outcome for children and young people.
Identifying mothers suffering from depression.
Reduced post-natal depression.
They are employed by social services.
They provide assistance and advice to children, young people and families with health need, housing issues, and poverty.
They support young people living care and those facing difficulties of any kind.
Keep families together by giving them support.
Children from care fulfil their full potential.
Families getting the help they need.
They offer health support to parents expecting a child/ children.
Parent has a successful pregnancy and birth.
Reduce the number of women smoking during pregnancy.
Increased breast feeding.
Increased parental confidence.
Antenatal care. Pre- and post – natal care.
Breast feeding training.
They are employed by the local Primary Health Trust.
They make observations and assessments through play with children in hospitals to identify their needs and fears while in hospital.
The children get full recover and play freely without any problems.
Introduction of play
Voluntary agencies and services
These include local and national services like NSPCC. They support and give advice to children, young people and their families experiencing threatening situations.
The families feel safe, secure and protected. They have a peace of mind knowing that they can get support and advice if they experience ant threatening behaviour.
Support and advice
Special Educational Needs Coordinator (SENCO).
Works in the setting
They have the responsibility to organise identification and support for children with special education needs
Being able identify that a child has special education needs and the child being able to get the help they need early on in time.
Referrals to respective professionals
They are doctors trained medically. They specialise in mental health.
They diagnose and support children and young people with mental health problems.
When the child and young person get all the support and treatment the y need. When they are able to lead a normal life afterwards.
They give advice and support to children, young people and their families on how to manage chronic conditions. They also measure and assess children’s development.
When families are able to handle and manage chronic conditions.
When families are able to get help in time if there are any underlining problems with their children’s development.
Measurements and assessment of children development.
Young justice teams.
They work with children and young people with anti social behaviour in the community. They work hand in hand with the social workers.
When the children and young people get the support they need to be model citizens.
Recognising and managing their emotions and learn about relationships.
Improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behaviour and academic performance.
Target offending behaviour
Thorough assessments of children and young people’s individual needs.
Offer structured programmes.
Offer programmes that can work that meet the families’ needs.
Additional learning support teams
They help children with specific educational needs within early years provisions, schools and out of school.
Children get the support and education to achieve their development goals.
Improved learning outcomes.
Children and young people’s development can be supported by using a range of technology. A voice activated computer programme will assist children and young people with delayed fine motor skills with writing. Children and young people with difficulties walking may use the latest wheelchairs so as they are able to achieve their development goal and be more independent. Physiotherapists, speech and language therapists and sensory impairment support professionals have the responsibility to choose the right type of assistive technology for children and young people.
http;//www.surreycc.gov.uk/social-careand health (17.02.2013)
Tassoni, P., Beith, K., Bulman, K., Griffin, S. (2010) Children and Young People’s Workforce. Early Learning and childcare. Level 3 Diploma. Essex: Heinemann.
Walker, M. (2011) Children and Young People’s Workforce. Early Learning and Childcare. Level 3 Diploma. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.